Here’s where it all begins: You’re sick of paying an exorbitant cable or satellite bill, and you have a strong sense that if you just limited your spending to a few streaming subscription services, you would be much more satisfied with your home entertainment experience. So let’s say that you already have a good TV, a speedy internet connection and a set-top box. (If you don’t, we’ll get to that later.) Who gets your money?
Optical: Though a similar technology to the old-school audio interface, HDMI-over-optical is capable of far greater bandwidth. It's also capable of far greater distances. It's easy to find options that are over 330ft/100m. Prices have dropped radically in the last few years, with options available for similar prices per-foot as traditional copper cables. Most don't even need external power. They work, and look, just like a thin HDMI cable. 

Pros: One benefit is unlimited DVR storage. Your recorded programs will be saved for up to nine months, compared with only about a month on some other streaming services. With more than 50 networks plus local news and sports, YouTube TV's offerings are greater than most of the others on our list. Also, you can create up to six accounts with your subscription, and you can stream on up to three devices at once.
By the late 1980s, a software upgrade "option" was offered by United Video for the Amiga 1000-based EPG Sr. This updated version featured a program listings grid identical in appearance to that of the original EPG Sr. version, but confined it to the lower half of the screen. In this new split-screen configuration, which was the forerunner to Prevue Guide, the upper half of the screen displayed static or animated graphical advertisements and logos created locally by each cable system operator. Up to 64 such ads were supported by the software, which ranged from ads for local and national businesses to promotions for cable channels carried by the local system. Locally created text-based advertisements were still supported, however, they now also appeared in the top half of the screen – support for showing them within the listings grid as scrolling ads, or beneath it as crawling banner ads, had been removed.
Philo is unique among the other skinny bundle internet TV services in that it does not offer any sports channels. That means if you love both MTV and ESPN, Philo is not the service for you. By eschewing sports channels, Philo is able to offer entertainment-only networks for a low cost, but this does ultimately create a more niche service, compared to other options like Sling TV and DirecTV Now. You won’t get any sports coverage at all with Philo.
PlayStation Vue’s packages used to be scaled based on whether your market had access to local live channels or not, but now all pricing tiers are priced identically regardless of where you live. The vast majority of markets include at least some live local channels on PS Vue, as the service now offers more than 600 local affiliates. Fox channels, in particular, get a special highlight on the service, with a specialized Fox feed that curates Fox-owned channels like Fox News, FS1, Fox Business, Fox Soccer Plus, and local Fox affiliates into a single feed that includes both live and VOD content. You can find which local channels are available in your area on Sony’s PS Vue page.
The answer to that will depend on what you’re specifically looking for from television. If your answer is “I want it all,” then honestly, you may be better off sticking with cable or satellite, because getting it “all” piecemeal will likely be prohibitively expensive. But if you have particular areas of interest, cord-cutting is definitely feasible and probably cheaper. (More advice on how to cut your bill without fully cutting the cord can be found in this guide from Wirecutter.)
General idea: PSA for gamers: PlayStation Vue is a super easy way to seamlessly slide from gaming to that new episode you're trying to watch without switching outputs. (Many other streaming services don't support viewing on Playstation, and if they do, it's only on PS4.) Vue's channel lineup is pretty stellar, with the lowest tier plan offering nearly 50 channels including ESPN, Disney, TBS, and Discovery. Vue allows simultaneous streaming on five devices at once, including a PS4, PS3, plus three other devices — so the whole house can use it even if they've never touched a PlayStation in their life. This also means five virtually unlimited DVRs. 
In the second quarter of 2018, Netflix released around 452 hours of U.S. original programming, up 51% year-over-year but actually slightly under the company’s record output of 483 hours in Q1 2018. In Q2, Netflix’s originals slate included “Thirteen Reasons Why” season 2, “Luke Cage” season 2, and “Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt” season 4, in addition to the reboot of “Lost in Space” and second seasons of drug war docu-series “Dope” and Brazilian dystopian series “3%.”
I too am fed up with the high cost of cable. It ticks me off that we pay so much and only watch a very small number of channels. To get the ones we want, we have to take a big package. Few channels are commercial-free. I don’t like paying a lot of money for cable and then also have to suffer through a ton of commercials. Even though I record most everything, you still get those popup ads and banners and TV logos. I hate those. Watching DVDs is what I do most.
Start with Netflix and Amazon Prime Video, tack on an HBO subscription to the latter, and consider paying for the Brit-centric streaming service Acorn as well. You’ll have plenty to watch, all commercial-free, and if you hear a lot of buzz about a show that isn’t available through any of those platforms, you can always pay for them on an episode-by-episode basis from Amazon (or iTunes, Vudu, or whichever digital retailer you prefer).
If you prefer to pay for only what you watch, and nothing more, you can buy single episodes of shows, as well as movies, a-la-carte. There are a lot of different sources for this: GooglePlay, Amazon Instant Video, iTunes, Vudu, PlayStation Store, Microsoft Store, and more. The prices are pretty much the same from one to another. Expect to pay $2-3 per episode, depending on the show.
Did you know that people in or near big cities can receive the major network channels (ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, CW), plus PBS and local stations in Hi-Def for free? It’s called broadcast digital TV. I was able to get thirty channels total in Providence, RI and over 100 in Los Angeles, CA. It takes a little leg work to set it up, but I’ll guide you through it.
In the second quarter of 2018, Netflix released around 452 hours of U.S. original programming, up 51% year-over-year but actually slightly under the company’s record output of 483 hours in Q1 2018. In Q2, Netflix’s originals slate included “Thirteen Reasons Why” season 2, “Luke Cage” season 2, and “Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt” season 4, in addition to the reboot of “Lost in Space” and second seasons of drug war docu-series “Dope” and Brazilian dystopian series “3%.”
Here’s a good place to experiment. Don’t look for a live TV option with Nickelodeon or Disney; instead, make use of the PBS app and YouTube’s kid-friendly channels, which are free. Get a subscription to Boomerang for some classic cartoons, and supplement that with some combination of Netflix, Hulu and Amazon, all of which have some excellent children’s shows.
In the end, the cable industry’s failure to protect the bundle came down largely to greed, Moffett said. Media executives wanted to charge more for certain rights, like making every old episode available to cable subscribers, or granting the rights to watch a show on an iPad outside the home, instead of giving them away for the good of the industry.
With Spectrum TV, for example, you get access to live TV streams for any of the networks in your tier of service. There's also lots of on-demand content for individual shows and some movies. It integrates channel guides and search for select shows/movies. If a channel (or show on a channel) that isn't available to you shows up on a menu, it's generally grayed out. And you can mark shows as favorites so they're easier to follow. But what's annoying is it takes a lot longer for a show to appear in the on-demand section—three or four days, instead of just one with a show on Hulu or even a network's own app, for example.
Apart from the basic packages, add-on packs like Sports Extra, News Extra, Kids Extra, and other bundles can be added on top. There’s even a respectable selection of movies for rent in HD for $4 each. While the picture may not be quite as reliable as cable or satellite TV (often dependent upon your device), Sling TV is affordable and easy to use, and the reliability has improved remarkably since launch.

What you get: The sports-centric Fubo now offers about 75 channels for the base $45-per-month package, or more than 90 channels with the new $50-per-month Fubo Extra plan. With Fubo you get a mix of live and on-demand channels from broadcast networks (CBS, Fox, and NBC in most markets), cable channels (A&E, Bravo, FX, SyFy, USA), and sports networks (BeIn Sports, FS1, Golf Channel, NBA TV). You also now get Turner channels, plus sports programming such as the MLB on TBS and the NBA on TNT. Also in the mix: a robust roster of regional sports networks—including those from NBC, Fox, and Yes—for local-team action, including MLB and NHL games. The service comes with a free cloud DVR that lets you store 30 hours of shows, movies, and games.
To help you comb through your options, we’ve put together this overview of 2018’s best TV providers and based it on our individual, in-depth reviews of each company. We know that not everyone wants the same thing from their TV provider, so we broke it down by satellite, cable, fiber-optic, and streaming providers. We encourage you to use this as a quick comparison, and dive into our individual reviews for a more thorough rundown of the companies that catch your eye.
The majority of cable and satellite TV providers offer customers packaged deal pricing on a contract basis. Generally, rates are locked in for two or more years, although companies may include an increase in cost after six or 12 months. Customers should ensure they do research about their contract and what it entails before locking in service with one company.

I bought this camcorder for my father as his Father's Day gift. I was expecting it to record happy time of my parents. After receiving the camcorder and try it for some videos, I was surprised with its video quality which is better than most smart phone. My father really loves the camcorder and he said he is going to take more videos and photos in his road trip. Overall, this is a very good quality camcorder with decent price. I will definitely recommend it!


Here’s where it all begins: You’re sick of paying an exorbitant cable or satellite bill, and you have a strong sense that if you just limited your spending to a few streaming subscription services, you would be much more satisfied with your home entertainment experience. So let’s say that you already have a good TV, a speedy internet connection and a set-top box. (If you don’t, we’ll get to that later.) Who gets your money?
For example, CBS offers a lot of free full episodes with even more when you sign up for CBS All Access ($59.99/yr with limited commercials or $99.99/yr without commercials after a 7-day free trial). For many shows, like 60 Minutes, you can watch the last 5 episodes for free. Some others have an entire season for free – such as Big Brother: Over the Top.
Ever since I first tried going wireless, I've been unable to bear going back to wired headsets. Unfortunately, it's hard to find a bluetooth headset that isn't crap. I've gone through a lot. Some have terrible battery life, a fraction of what is advertised. Some break. Some stop outputting audio through one side. Some, after a few months of use, stop holding a charge. It seems like several times a year I purchase headsets. Even when just going with the highest-rated ones, they keep letting me down.
I just dumped my cable tv service three days ago after they suddenly raised my monthly bill $25 to $194 per month for tv, internet, and phone. By dropping the tv and inquiring about a discount on my internet, my bill will be around $81 per month for 10Mps internet and VOIP phone. I am considering dropping my landline and using my tracfone cell phone only, which would shave off another $35 per month.

Hulu is one of the most affordable alternatives to cable and satellite tv. Not only is there original content, but you can also view shows from local channels and some cable networks soon after they air. The baseline service comes in at a reasonable $8 per month, though you do have to tolerate some highly repetitive ads if you choose this option. If the ads get under your skin, for a $12 a month, you can upgrade to the commercial-free service.
In my case having cable TV is the bargain over high speed internet. I called and asked for what they call “limited service” cable — it gives me the major networks, with QVC, FAM, all the spanish channels and two public broadcasting stations thrown in, for $17.00 a month. The high speed internet was costing me $52 a month, so I reluctantly let it go. Watching TV online is no bargain at all for me.

But cable providers didn't factor in that the internet they provide would become their worst enemy via access to streaming video. Services like Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Video are the most well-known names in what's become known as "cord cutting"—doing away with pay TV and using over-the-air (like the old days) or internet-based services to get all your "television" programming. That means no more paying a huge monthly fee for thousands of hours of TV you don't watch (in theory). Instead, you pay individual services for a la carte programming. It's a lot like paying for just what you watch. Almost.


It’s really not that big of a shock that a major TV provider has inconsistent customer service at best. We pitted DIRECTV and DISH against each other in the customer service department, and DISH falls short on the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI1).  From our experience, you can expect longer hold times with DISH’s customer service department.
Unless you live near the center of Pennsylvania, you probably won’t be very interested in what USTVNow Plus offers in the way of local channels. USTVNow is a service designed to let Americans living outside the country access American broadcast TV channels, but the only feeds you can get originate in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Additionally, we’re not sure if UTVNow Plus is even totally legal since it doesn’t seem to play by the strict sports licensing rules that other streaming services have to follow.

We do not want to watch TV on a computer screen. We do not like any current movies or the HBO and Netflix series. We want Fox News, MSNBC, and our local news. We want to watch Big Bang Theory, Last Man Standing, NCIS, NCIS New Orleans, Josh Gates’ programs, Diners drive-ins and Dives, Pitbulls and Parolees, Roll Back the Oceans, Ancient Aliens (it’s hilarious). shows about people living in Alaska. And others of that ilk. Also must have PBS. And NHL and NFL and soccer games and volleyball.


I’m always open to ‘The New’… of times… I’ve also been checking out ‘building our own antenna’. I’m on SSD, older and no help at all. Here we have 9 major (incorporated, non-county) cities. In 2016 they completely cut off the ‘required (by law) access’, to “local feeds and channels”. One of those nine “incorporated” cities, mine being “that (incorporated) city”, cut off completely. The required law (in part) was, and is, based on the right to the service(s) for ’emergency’ purposes and NEWS information… I still don’t know how (for sure) they get away with it. I’m gonna keep on checking in.
On top of that, you can combine free over-the-air TV with many of these devices by using either an OTA DVR (once your antenna is connected to the DVR, devices like Tablo will let you stream the OTA feed on your streaming device via the relevant app – in this case, Tablo TV) or Plex (connect an antenna, via a PC TV tuner, to the computer hosting your Plex server and then use the Plex app on supported streaming devices and access the live TV feature). It's simplest of all with a smart TV (such as the ones that Roku makes with its manufacturing partners): just plug your antenna into your TV, which is also your streaming device, and scan for channels!
This steady decline is the driving force behind a series of blockbuster mergers reshaping the media landscape, such as  AT&T buying Time Warner, Walt Disney acquiring much of Fox, and Comcast pursuing Sky. Entertainment companies, nervously watching their business model waste away like a slowly melting glacier, are deciding they need to get larger and expand globally to compete with deep-pocketed rivals like Netflix—or sell.
An antenna is your means of access to local programming when cutting cable TV. If you want an in-depth guide for the information required for an optimal antenna solution, you should check out my antenna guide. Setting up an antenna may be seamless, or it may be the most difficult thing you do when canceling cable. There are numerous variables involved in television signals and antennas. If you are having a difficult time with this, the antenna guide makes this task easier.
YouTube is the most popular streaming-video platform online; it was only a matter of time until YouTube tried its hand at providing live TV, too. For $35 per month with this service, you'll get almost 40 channels — which is, admittedly, not that many. Still, there are some good networks, especially for sports fans: multiple stations from ESPN, CBS Sports and Fox Sports. YouTube TV's biggest draw is the service's unlimited DVR feature, which lets you record as much as you want and keep it for up to nine months. The integration with the rest of YouTube feels half-baked, though.
These do require additional hardware, running extra cables from your TV, and waiting at least a day to watch the newest episodes of cable network shows. And if you're hoping to sever all ties with your cable provider, that's not going to be an option in many regional markets, as you'll still need them for the high-speed Internet service that makes this all work. But the cost savings of dropping the TV package can be substantial, and there have never been as many good choices available as there are today in both hardware and content. Here's what you'll need.

Cable stinks, but it didn't always stink, and its channel bundles include some great stuff. That inspired the companies behind the major live TV streaming services to set out to beat cable at its own game. They began to offer pay TV “multichannel” services – industry lingo for cable- and satellite-type pay TV bundles – only they slashed the size and the price of cable's bulky bundles and offered folks a key selection of channels for less. And since these services stream online, you can watch them anywhere and on almost any device.


ISP’s vary by location. I’m maintaining a list of providers with affordable internet only plans you can use to cut the cord. If you can’t find one on that page, try your existing provider. Now I know the “big” internet providers seem only to offer “triple play” packages bundling phone, TV, and internet. However, if you dig around on their site you should be able to find an internet service offering.
CBS News: Not to be confused with CBS's nightly and weekly broadcasts, this round-the-clock streaming service provides anchored news coverage throughout the day and live broadcasts of major events. In a sense, it's an antidote to cable news, with a heavy emphasis on reported stories instead of talking heads. For cord cutters, it's a must-see. Available on: Roku, Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV, Android TV, and Xbox
Today you've got plenty of options. Six major services -- DirecTV Now, Fubo TV, Hulu with Live TV, PlayStation Vue, Sling TV and YouTube TV -- stream multiple channels of live TV over the Internet, including local channels. Each has its plusses and minuses, including pricing (starting at $25 per month), features (like cloud DVRs) and user interface, but the biggest differentiator is channel lineup.
For Sling TV, choice is a big factor. Sling TV is the undisputed king of add-on channels. You’ll find over a dozen different add-on channel packages using Sling TV. They offer everything from news channels to additional sports channels. You can even find a long list of non-English networks from various parts of the world, as well as popular movie channels for an additional cost (such as HBO).
I am wanting to get Netflix, and Hulu, but my son says that our internet isn’t fast enough. He likes to play online game with others and I want to watch TV, movies, etc. I live just outside the city(not even a mile) and I can’t get DSL from anyone! The only internet we can get is through Bluegrass cellular (a cell phone company)and it is $65.00 a month and me and my son can’t even do what we each want at the same time! I’m very angry.

Cable stinks, but it didn't always stink, and its channel bundles include some great stuff. That inspired the companies behind the major live TV streaming services to set out to beat cable at its own game. They began to offer pay TV “multichannel” services – industry lingo for cable- and satellite-type pay TV bundles – only they slashed the size and the price of cable's bulky bundles and offered folks a key selection of channels for less. And since these services stream online, you can watch them anywhere and on almost any device.

FuboTV is a live online streaming service that specializes in providing sports programming. Though they also offer a selection of regular TV programming, they provide live streaming of games in the MLB, NFL, NHL and NBA, as well as major college sports and international sporting events. For $34.99 per month the service offers access to 68 channels. FuboTV is also offering a one-week free trial so that you can check out the service.
For much of 2015, graduate students at Columbia School of Journalism took part in the RT Watch project, monitoring RT's (US) output. Casey Michel, who worked on the project, wrote "RT ignores the inherent traits of journalism—checking sources, relaying facts, attempting honest reportage" and "you’ll find 'experts' lacking in expertise, conspiracy theories without backing, and, from time to time, outright fabrication for the sake of pushing a pro-Kremlin line".[193][194] The results were compiled in a Tumblr blog.[195]
Sling is the company that kickstarted the TV streaming category and still has the cheapest offering of the Big 5 (although sports-free options from Philo and AT&T Watch TV are cheaper at $16 and $15 monthly; see below). The main reason Sling can offer such low prices is it carries very few local stations (ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC), so many subscribers supplement the service with an antenna. Sling's interface isn't much to look at, but it offers all of the options you need without cluttering the screen. The only real letdown is its arcane live pause and DVR exceptions (you can't record Disney-owned channels like ABC, for example). Its options are myriad, including two base channel lineups (Orange and Blue) and numerous add-ons, so check out Sling TV: Everything you need to know for all the details.
LM&M- Sometimes its about $$$ only and not so much what people can and cannot watch. My mom’s cable package is $139 and ours is $69 – way above what a lot of people can afford, and if it comes down to food vs. TV, I would pick food as well. However, we are not in that situation, but rather just considering what our options are – We watch only a few shows a week, I cannot catch Sox games unless they are playing the Yankees (espn), and I don’t mind watching a show the next day…I work from home by myself. (thankfully) When they get all the bugs figured out, internet TV is definitely the future though…
If you're looking for a little more flexibility, Mujay might be just the antenna. The double-sided antenna is similar to the VICTONY antenna in that it can be mounted by simply placing it behind the TV, on the wall, or on a nearby window. After mounting, set the antenna to either 0-35 miles or 35-80 miles to bring in the most channels. Just keep in mind that if your TV doesn't have an HDTV tuner, you'll need a digital converter to make sure the signal is coming through properly. It's also often on sale, making it an even more affordable option.
Your options get a little thinner after the skinny bundles, but there are some other apps to consider. One of these is CBS All Access, which offers local feeds of CBS stations to certain customers. Once again, you'll have to live in certain areas to get the live feeds – and, once again, you can find out how good the deal is for your region by checking out the service's week-long free trial via the link below. CBS All Access costs $5.99/month (you can pay more to get rid of commercials, but that only affects the on-demand content, not the live TV). You can read our full review of CBS All Access here.
Amazon – This e-commerce giant has paired its streaming offerings with its Amazon Prime subscription service. Along with movies, TV shows, and original series, you'll enjoy perks unrelated to streaming, like free two-day shipping on some items sold through the site. Amazon also acts as a broker for other streaming services: you can add HBO, or instance, to your Amazon account and stream it through Amazon's app.
Spectrum is now requiring a box for all TVs to receive their signal. I have a TV in the basement that I use while exercising and watch only news programs. Is their a way I can use one of your suggestions that will allow me to watch the news. Or are MSNBC, CNN, FOX etc by definition only cable channels. We have Amazon Prime and Netflix and would love to cut the cable if there were a way to also get these news channels. Thanks.
I seldom watch TV. When I do, I like news to watch a little local or world news. Its my kids and wife that watch it. I would get this for them alone. But I am looking for a no contract tv service without an internet connection. But also most importantly, my wife’s needs,are HGTV, Hallmark mysteries and movies, all of the networks channels, usa, lifetime, ion, and for my kids, Disney and nick. They are the ones that I’d have to please in this. But how will i know for sure if i can get all of that?
Charter Availability:  Charter’s service area is within the states of Alabama, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.
Some of the live TV services offer Turner Classic Movies as part of the standard package; some put it in one of the pricier tiers. Check the channel packages available in your area, and if you can get one that offers TCM without charging too much, start there, then add Amazon Prime Video and add FilmStruck, which is also strong on foreign classics.
One approach is to use one of the cord-cutting “calculators” at sites like The Verge and Slate, which allow users to pick out which services they’re interested in and then tally up your savings relative to cable. These are useful, but they generally don’t take into account a key cord cutting enabler: the ability to purchase shows a la carte through iTunes and Amazon, usually within a day of their original airing. This isn’t new technology—iTunes has been selling television downloads since 2005—but it changes the streaming calculus because it means you can easily and cheaply plug any gaps in whatever bundle of streaming options you choose.
Prime Video not only has thousands of TV shows and movies available to stream on-demand. You can also subscribe to add-ons if you want to get access to more channels and content. There are Amazon Video add-ons for: Showtime, HBO, Acorn TV, Comedy Central Standup, Cheddar, Con TV, Comic Con, Curiosity Stream, History Vault, and more. See the chart below for the full list of channels you can get with Amazon Prime Video.
When we went through the ordering process for Spectrum and got all the way to the check-out, we realized we never got to choose which DVR we wanted. Spectrum offers both Motorola and Cisco DVRs (neither of which stand out from competitor DVRs like the Genie or Hopper 3), and as far as we can tell, you get whichever one Spectrum decides to send you.
The VICTONY TV Antenna is a flat panel antenna that sets the standard for the rest of the antennas going forward in terms of just how functional they can be. The antenna is easy to set up since it can be mounted on the wall, behind the TV, or on a window. Just make sure it's getting as clear a signal as possible because that will get you the most over-the-air channels in full 1080p. But don't worry, with a range of 50 miles, you don't have to be right next to any broadcast towers.

But cable providers didn't factor in that the internet they provide would become their worst enemy via access to streaming video. Services like Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Video are the most well-known names in what's become known as "cord cutting"—doing away with pay TV and using over-the-air (like the old days) or internet-based services to get all your "television" programming. That means no more paying a huge monthly fee for thousands of hours of TV you don't watch (in theory). Instead, you pay individual services for a la carte programming. It's a lot like paying for just what you watch. Almost.

I also had the same problem as you and Cara. my laptop is HP, I have a Samsung TV that works perfectly well with HDMI both audio and picture. Once I hook to Sony sound comes out from the laptop regardless of how many times I choose TV speakers and enable them. So, my solution, like Cara's was that every time I hook my HP to Sony, I go to sound mixer and disable my laptop speakers. Automatically the Sony speakers start working afterwards. Now, to listen to your laptop speakers again, all you have to do is again go to volume mixer icon, choose laptop speakers and allow it to configure again. The problem will solve itself and show u a "fixed" message when it is done. The downside is every time I rehook it to Sony I have to disable the laptop speakers again, then reinstall them once I am done. Hope that helps.


Hood Canal’s cable offers something for everyone. The major networks that carry all the shows you want; specialty channels to appeal to your personal tastes; premium channels with great movies and original programming; Pay-Per-View channels and 50 digital music stations. So no matter what you are looking for – you will find it on Hood Canal Communication’s Cable TV. 
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