This may not be for everyone, but if are in the US, and you already have a somewhat fast PC with a large enough hard drive, a home network, and an Xbox 360 on a TV, you can get an HD TV card with 2 tuners and record up to two TV programs at a time. I am using an HDHomerun, because I like the fact that it’s not physically in my computer, but there are cheaper alternatives. The Windows7 version of Windows Media Center has greater HD quality than most HD recorders offered by cable/satellite/ and others that cost over $400.00 per box if you were to buy one! Some cable companies deliver QAM signals also, so even if you only have the most basic cable signal, you may be getting free unencrypted digital signals over that line (check with your cable company), or you can also use an antenna for free, like me.
I bought a 360 degree antenna earlier this year that did not work too well . I live in the county in the middle of eight towers but they are are kinda spread out in three different directions . Three channels would not come in and seven channels were breaking up real bad. with this new 360 degree antenna I am gitting all of those channels and all the others I was already receiving . Now I get thirty channels and they are perfactly clear. For an antenna the size of a dinner plate it does a great job.
Remember the days when you could watch network television for free? (those under 25, ask your parents). Well those channels are still available at no cost...if you have an antenna. And no, we're not talking about the clunky rabbit ears of old. Antennas have changed substantially in looks and performance over the last several years. Breakthroughs in technology spurred by development of the tiny but powerful digital antennas in smartphones have been adapted to the realm of TV reception. The result? "TV antennas today are 10% of the mass they were decades ago," says Richard Schneider, president of Missouri-based manufacturer Antennas Direct. "And the move to an all digital transmission that the FCC mandated back in 2009 has put those TV signals in a higher frequency which means a better signal with less noise".
But cable providers didn't factor in that the internet they provide would become their worst enemy via access to streaming video. Services like Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon Video are the most well-known names in what's become known as "cord cutting"—doing away with pay TV and using over-the-air (like the old days) or internet-based services to get all your "television" programming. That means no more paying a huge monthly fee for thousands of hours of TV you don't watch (in theory). Instead, you pay individual services for a la carte programming. It's a lot like paying for just what you watch. Almost.
Hulu ($7.99/mo., $11.99/mo.): Hulu’s original content isn’t as copious or as impressive as Netflix’s, but it did just win the first ever “Best Dramatic Series” Emmy for a subscription streaming service, courtesy of “The Handmaid’s Tale.” Hulu is also becoming more and more of a boon to TV buffs, thanks to a growing library of classic older shows, as well as some current ABC, NBC, and Fox series. (In fact, one of Hulu’s main selling-points for cord-cutters is it has deals to allow subscribers to watch the most recent episode or episodes of much of those networks’ programming.) The lower price tier includes commercial breaks. The higher tier kills the ads. Hulu also has an option to add live TV (starting at $39.99/mo.), covered further down.
When talking to people who are interested in cutting the cord, the issue that continually crops up is how to find affordable internet access. Many ask how to obtain internet access without a cable TV bundle. While market competition between internet service providers in the U.S. is extremely low, you can still find deals on high-speed internet only plans without a TV bundle.
But if you have a Nvidia Shield, you should forget Kodi and get SPMC instead. SPMC is identical to Kodi, but it runs better on Nvidia Shield – plus it has features that the Kodi app lacks like passthrough audio and voice recognition capability. The reason why SPMC is so similar to the Kodi app is that it was created by the same guy – a developer called Koyling. Koyling split away from the Kodi team last year to focus on SPMC. Like Kodi, SPMC is totally free.
RT America RT America is based in RT's Washington, D.C. bureau, it includes programs hosted by American journalists. The channel maintains a separate schedule of programs each weekday from 4:00 p.m. to 12:00 a.m. Eastern Time, and simulcasts RT International at all other times. RT America was compelled to register as a foreign agent with the United States Department of Justice National Security Division under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. English 2010
State-owned RIA Novosti news agency, which founded RT in 2005, is one of the largest in Russia. Its chairperson is Svetlana Mironyuk, who has modernised the agency since her appointment in 2003. RIA Novosti has stated it helped establish RT, but is "neither a sponsor nor a backer of Russia Today." Mikhail Seslavinsky, in charge of the Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation asserted in 2005 that "Russia Today will come as an independent company". Under Russian law RT is an independent organisation.
You might also be able to save by bundling your TV and Internet subscriptions: After a recent move, one of the authors of this guide, Chris Heinonen, discovered that with his new Internet provider, it was cheaper to get Internet service bundled with TV than without. However, once Chris added the cost of multiple cable boxes and DVR service, those savings disappeared. So Chris currently rents one non-HD cable box, which sits in a closet unused, and uses an Apple TV, Roku, or tablet to stream all his family’s favorite shows. This setup lets them start and finish shows on any TV, and it offers more flexibility than any cable box would. (The downsides to this strategy are that one can’t “record” shows for offline viewing, and each network you want to watch must provide an app with streaming support—but more and more networks are offering such apps.) In the end, Chris saves around $10 a month compared with paying for Internet alone while also being able to stream the Olympics, college and NFL football, Mr. Robot, The Americans, and more directly to his iPhone and various media streamers.
The TV industry isn’t suffering financially, however, because it keeps raising prices on the remaining customers. The average pay-TV customer today spends $106.20 a month, up 44 percent from 2011, according to Leichtman Research Group. Since 1980 cable, satellite, and phone companies have generated $1.8 trillion in revenue from selling TV service, according to Kagan, a unit of S&P Global Market Intelligence. Revenue last year was $116 billion.
Sony’s PlayStation Vue service has moved from its PlayStation bonds to include Chromecast, Roku, Apple TV, and Amazon Fire TV support. While Vue’s slew of channels makes it much more comprehensive, its base packages are a bigger investment than Sling TV, starting at $45 per month and moving up to $50, and $60, and $80 tiers. Vue has also ditched its Slim packages, which were cheaper, but didn’t offer local channels. In other words, PS Vue is a pricey affair.
With Sling, there’s no more waiting on a show to air—you can watch it live like with cable or satellite, except you’re watching over the internet! The basic package includes 30 live channels like AMC, CNN, ESPN, ESPN2, HGTV, and Disney Channel. You can get a slightly different lineup of networks for $25, or get both for $40. There are also $5–10 add-on packages for sports fans, movie buffs and your little ones. So if ESPN is the only reason you’re clinging to your cable box, you may be out of excuses now!
The moment for me when the idea of dropping TV service became a long term prospect rather than just a short term experiment so I could write this article, was when I plugged in the antenna. The fact that I can get such high quality output, for network and PBS channels I had been paying for makes it hard for me to envision going back to a cable TV subscription. In addition, I have to sit through far fewer commercials (though I suspect that may change over time). Watching Netflix movies on the TV is much more satisfying than on the smaller computer screen and of course the freedom to watch current TV programs on my own schedule is a huge benefit when juggling the demands of work and family. I know there will be times during the year when a sports event I want to watch will be unavailable. But there's just no arguing with the dramatic cost savings. Pay TV is undeniably a richer experience, but is it worth a 330% premium? Not for me.
In my opinion the best TV tuner brand out there right now is HDHomeRun. HDHomeRun devices are affordable (the cheapest model is $79.99) and easy to use. All you have to do is plug your antenna into your HDHomeRun and connect it to your local network. Once you’re up and running, you can access OTA TV channels from any HDHomeRun app. HDHomeRun makes apps for pretty much every platform, including Mac, PC, Xbox One, PS3 and PS4, Android, Kodi, Plex and more.
Meanwhile, several TV and music services are teaming up to offer a more comprehensive streaming experience. Hulu and Spotify, for instance, have teamed up to offer a $12.99 per month bundled subscription for access to Hulu's Limited Commercials plan and Spotify Premium. Industry rivals Philo TV and Pandora are offering a similar deal: You can get three free months of Pandora Premium thrown into the mix with either of Philo TV's two main subscription plans.
Good to know, especially for those senior citizens (like me), who have free access to the internet in senior housing but are not allowed to stream anything on their computers! No Netflix, no tv shows, movies, documentaries etc…We survive on email and text-news. Streaming is an “immediate shut-down” offense. Shame on cable networks. President Obama announced recently that all new public and public supported housing will, by law, offer tenents free internet access. Will be interesting if that “free” includes incarceration without streaming.
Since moving back to New York City and dropping TV service, my Time Warner Cable Internet-only plan costs $40 per month (I'm excluding the $5 promotional discount) for 15Mbps service. The flagship Roku 3 box I'm using costs $103 with sales tax (you can of course choose a lower-priced model). After getting the Roku I signed up for the $8 per month Hulu Plus account. I've always had Netflix in addition to my cable/satellite subscription so I'm not factoring my $8 monthly subscription for that service into the equation.
Recently, I tried out (and returned) so many that I worked my way down to this one. It was far from my first choice. When I got it, my hopes weren't high. I generally prefer plain black headsets. Having the large "sharkbite" components on the back of the earbuds seemed unnecessary and ostentatious. I'm not a fan of how the earbud tips are forced ... full review
What I love about using Playon is that it integrates very nicely with my xbox 360. I can use my regular remote to watch tv shows, movies/etc through playon, just like i would with a regular dvd player or network media player. i don’t have to have a keyboard and mouse sitting on our coffee table at all times, i can just navigate to the playon folder on the xbox, and start watching shows on the big screen. I also have an old media computer hooked up to our big tv, but i rarely turn it on anymore because of the nice setup with playon.
Gawker.TV - Okay, so our association aside (Gawker.TV is the all-video site of our blog network's namesake, Gawker), Gawker.TV was the go-to online destination we fired up every day during the recent Late Night debacle for comprehensive coverage of all the drama—and we didn't have to stay up all night to keep up with the latest. Gawker.TV isn't the only site out there that posts clips and synopses from shows and news events, but it's got a quick turnaround and can really fill a gap you miss when you don't have access to the regular cable lineup.
DISH also has the best DVR available. The Hopper 3 Smart DVR lets you record up to 16 shows at once, and you can record 2 ½ times more HD content (500 hours) than the Genie from DIRECTV (200 hours). However, keep in mind that the advertised package price doesn’t include the DVR price. You’ll have to pay an extra $10 per month for the Hopper and an additional $5–$10 per month for each added receiver.
In our case, we already had everything at our house, except for the PlayOn software. So for this setup we paid $59.99 for a lifetime license for the PlayOn software, plus the $8.99/month for the basic Netflix streaming package (get it, it's worth it!).We were also already paying for Amazon Prime, so we got free streaming TV shows and movies with that membership.
In November 2016, after the US Presidential Election, The Washington Post reported that RT and Sputnik were "state-funded Russian information services that mimic the style and tone of independent news organizations yet sometimes include false and misleading stories in their reports" and also that "RT, Sputnik and other Russian sites used social-media accounts to amplify misleading stories already circulating online". The Post was criticized by The Intercept, Fortune, and Rolling Stone for relying in part on an analysis by PropOrNot, an anonymous organization with no reputation for fact-checking.
The hardware is nice, even though it's a bit bigger than other similar devices. The remote is also quite good, acting as a minimal, Apple TV-like remote on one side with a mini keyboard on the other. The keyboard makes a huge difference, but doesn't feel like it makes the remote overly complicated. If I had one complaint, it's that the keyboard is a little hard to type on—especially because it requires you to hold down Alt or Shift to get numbers or capital letters, unlike similar keyboards you'd find on phones. It's just a little off-putting at first. But overall, the remote is really great.
I had planed to purchase another set of Terk leapfrog transmitter and receiver , but thanks to an Amazon review on the product I realized that the 2.4 ghz systems where becoming obsolete due to the saturation of WIFI signals .So I deduced that it wasn't that my Terk system failed it was that my neighbor got new internet service . The Nyrius set up works perfectly at 5.8 ghz and I can even run my microwave w/o interference . and it pays for its self because the cable/satellite crooks charge upwards of $7 a month to "rent" additional units . My primary TV in the family room I use this on my kitchen TV ,the remote works a room away no issues . I have additional receivers coming for use on my patio this summer and for the work shop in my garage .Now if only the ... full review
The downside is that on-demand access is limited, and the various packages can get confusing (particularly on Sling TV). Other limitations, such as the number of different devices a household can use simultaneously, are also frustrating and hard to understand. And you will need a good high-speed internet connection to stream TV with either option, so factor that into your budget.
Although most cable systems kept the original, full-screen EPG in operation well into the early 1990s, some systems with large numbers of subscribers opted for this upgraded version of EPG Sr. in order to exploit the revenue potential of its graphical local advertising capabilities. The Atari-based EPG Jr. was never afforded this split-screen upgrade and fell out of favor during the late 1980s as cable systems migrated to the full- or split-screen Amiga 1000-based EPG Sr., and later to the Amiga 2000-based Prevue Guide. However, the EPG Jr. remained in service as late as 2005 on a few small cable systems, as well as on a number of private cable systems operated by various hotel chains and certain housing and apartment complexes.
Video is watched on the desktop via the included app, or is sent over the home network and played full screen through a connected device. In our case that means the Xbox 360, Nexus tablet, Fire TV, Samsung Galaxy Smartphone or Chromecast connected to our 50″ Plasma TV. We can control playback via a smartphone or tablet via the PlayOn app. We can watch our shows on whatever devices we want!
There is NO WAY to get FREE CABLE TV over the air, with an HDTV antenna. It is not possible to get HGTV, The History Channel, AMC, CMT, TVLand, and those other types of channels over an HDTV antenna! I wish these websites and these phony ads would stop fooling people into buying these “magic sticks” and “magic TV” antennas claiming that they will be able to watch CNN, TNT, TBS, The Science Channel, Biography, National Geographic, etc. without paying a cable company. It is NOT TRUE. They can stream whatever with a subscription, but guess what? THEY STILL NEED TO PAY THE CABLE COMPANY FOR INTERNET ACCESS AND THAT COSTS ABOUT $80 A MONTH WHEN YOU CANCEL THE BUNDLES!
"Easy to use. Being able to watch my local CBS channel live is a nice bonus. Now I don't have to have an over the top cable package to get my local CBS channel. Plenty of shows (current and past episodes) to choose from. Now I can watch my favorite CBS shows with the app. Picture does load in a little fuzzy at first, but after a few seconds it comes in in full HD, just like my cable subscription used to."
Me and my fiance has got our very own first home together. We are trying to manage our bills and trying to find some way we can be able to get a lot of shows and full movies cheap. Looking to watch teen wolf shows, stuff like that then we also would like to have full christmas, scary, and more kind of movies. I dont know much about any of them so really looking for some good advice. Please let me know what kind would probably be the cheapest and best for us. Thanks!
One of the advantages of unplugging from the physical cable sticking out of a socket in your home is that you’re free to enjoy the entertainment you’re paying for on any screen you happen to have handy, be it a laptop, tablet or mobile phone. Many streaming services, like Netflix and Hulu, keep track of what you’re watching and will let you pause a show or movie on one device, then pick it up later on another device.
Hi Kayla! I think I’ve read EVERY word on this particular blog! It has been HIGHLY informative! I’m too wanting to cut cable. These prices . . . man! Who can afford this stuff? I know I can’t anymore. From what I’ve gathered, with a Smart Tv, looks like I can stream Netflix and Hulu. For other channels I and my son like to watch I’ll need Sling. And for local channels an antenna. My question is for internet or streaming, do I HAVE to have an ISP? Can I purchase a modem and/or router? I know internet only plans are much cheaper but if I can get outta paying for that as well I sure would like to!! MUCH thanks to you!! I am now your FAN ?
Even so, no service we've reviewed is incomplete enough to discourage you from using it outright. If a service sounds like it might be a good fit for you, your best bet is to investigate which channels that service offers and see if it falls within your price range. Most of these services give you anywhere from a week to a month to evaluate them before charging you, and none of them require a contract. At worst, you'll be stuck with a service you don't like for a month.
Every major television broadcaster (NBC, ABC, CBS, FOX and the CW) has some kind of free content available on their website — some more than others. You might have to poke around a bit to find out if full episodes of your favorite show are available. Sometimes the full episodes are hidden behind a paywall, with only a smattering of episode clips available for free.
We also recommend testing your internet speed at peak streaming hours (between 6 – 10 p.m. weekdays) to determine if your neighborhood struggles under the strain of heavy traffic. For instance, if you routinely get around 10Mbps downloads during the day, but that figure takes a dive to about 3Mbps around dinner time, you’ll want to call your internet provider to see if anything can be done. Fortunately, this is an increasingly rare problem outside of rural areas, but better to check ahead.
Lastly, Google TV's streaming services are pretty good, since it has most of the Google Play store at its disposal. You can watch Netflix, Amazon (however crappily), and some sports channels, but a lot of content is missing—like Hulu and other TV channels. It does, however, have the movies and TV section of Google Play, which like iTunes lets you download and rent videos to your TV. Prices are comparable for movies, costing about $15-20 to buy, with a pretty good selection. Shows are cheaper at $20-$40 per season, but the selection leaves a lot to be desired. That said, other apps like the Chrome web browser, the occasional video game, or the awesome Plex media center make Google TV a bit more appealing.
Netflix.com: Slightly more, but the added convenience of keeping the movies and TV shows as long as you want, and being able to stream a selection of movies and TV shows over the computer, or networked media device. Netflix is getting better all the time, now with great original series like House of Cards. Find all plans and how to maximize your return on this post: How Much Netflix Costs.
We know that many of our visitors are looking for an all-in-one guide to cord cutting with an as-simple-as-possible explanation of how to watch TV without cable. So that's what we're setting out to do here. In this guide, we'll explain the importance of learning how to watch TV without cable after – or, preferably, even before – you cut the cord. We'll cover the main ways to replace live TV and on-demand content, the best devices to use to stream that content, and the pros and cons of each type of service and device. We'll wrap things up with a summary, plus a reminder of why we run this site and where you might want to go next. So read on: this is how to watch TV without cable.
Hi, We have been considering giving up our Directv for sometime, Running across this forum has made the decision for us. I see that a Chromecast would be needed per TV that you want to use. My question is, Does a laptop or computer HAVE to be used to do any of this? We have a PS3, So would I be able to use the PS3 for Hulu, Netflix, Playon, and whatever other channels we find? And the other question is, On any of these options, can you watch the show/movie live or do you have to wait a week or so after it airs? We are more worried about our shows like Outlander, Game of Thrones, Big Bang theory, Homeland, etc??
A few of the previous services have been notable for their sports content (YouTube TV and Hulu with Live TV, in particular), but if sports is one of your primary concerns, you’ll want to look into FuboTV. This is another relatively new service that has been gaining some recognition for the niche it appeals to, especially after it was advertised as a way to easily watch Super Bowl 52 with its free trial. It is quickly on the rise, too: The service announced that as of September 2018 it was approaching 250,000 subscribers, up from 100,000 in September 2017. That may not be the millions of subscribers boasted by Sling TV and DirecTV Now, but it is substantial growth.
A report released by the US think-tank the RAND Corporation in 2016 called RT part of "a wider Russian propaganda operation" named the "Firehose of Falsehood". The paper called "Russian faux-news propaganda channels, such as RT" insidious and that "they look like news programs, and the persons appearing on them are represented as journalists and experts, making audience members much more likely to ascribe credibility to the misinformation these sources are disseminating".
Price: A premium account goes for $6.95/month and has unlimited access to all content as well as discounts on merch like plushies and shirts at the Crunchyroll store. The Fan Pack, which goes for $9.99/month, gets you Crunchyroll content plus funimation and simuldubs ad-free and in HD on VRV. Finally, for $14.99/month, the Super Fan Pack will give you all of the previously mentioned perks, plus free shipping at the Crunchyroll store and special access to events.
Launched in 1981 by United Video Satellite Group, the network began its life as a simple electronic program guide (EPG) software application sold to cable system operators throughout the United States and Canada. Known simply as the Electronic Program Guide, the software was designed to be run within the headend facility of each participating cable system on a single, custom-modified consumer-grade computer supplied by United Video. Its scrolling program listings grid, which cable system operators broadcast to subscribers on a dedicated channel, covered the entire screen and provided four hours of listings for each system's entire channel lineup, one half-hour period at a time. Because of this, listings for programs currently airing would often be several minutes from being shown. Additionally, because the EPG software generated only video, cable operators commonly resorted to filling the EPG channel's audio feed with music from a local FM radio station, or with programming from a cable television-oriented audio service provider such as Cable Radio Network.
this is rediculous. Use your hdtv as your computer monitor. All you have to do is get an hdmi cable plug it from the computer to the hdtv. then watch hulu on the big screen ,.This is ehat I’ve been doing for years. Honestl;y if you find yourself a good private torrent tracker you can download any tv show you want in full hd without commercials… i don’t mind being unethical. the cable company is.
Philo, like nearly every other service listed here, gives you a long list of popular cable channels to watch live over the internet. But it differs significantly in what content is supports — or more accurately, doesn’t support. Despite boasting a bevy of channels, including Viacom-owned favorites like MTV and Comedy Central (absent from many competing services), the four major networks — Fox, NBC, CBS, and ABC — are not carried by Philo, nor is anything from ABC’s parent company, Disney. That means, along with no local affiliates, there is also no ESPN. When it comes to locals, though, many viewers can get them over the air with a simple (and affordable) HD antenna for free.
What you get: PlayStation Vue can be configured to resemble an expansive, if somewhat pricey, cable-TV-style programming plan. After recent price hikes, packages range from a $45-per-month basic option to an $80 Ultra plan with about 90 channels, including premium channels such as HBO and Showtime. You get local channels in many major markets and a cloud DVR for recording shows. Vue supports up to five simultaneous users. There’s now also a mobile option, so new users can sign up and start watching the service directly from mobile phones, tablets, or PCs even when they’re outside the home.
A lot of people pay a lot of money in order to be able to watch the TV shows that they want, when they want. In the process they end up spending upwards of $500-1000 a year, mostly for programming that they don't watch. If they would just look a little deeper they might find that there are a lot of free or low cost options out there, and they can get a lot of the same TV shows, movies and other video content for free.
This steady decline is the driving force behind a series of blockbuster mergers reshaping the media landscape, such as AT&T buying Time Warner, Walt Disney acquiring much of Fox, and Comcast pursuing Sky. Entertainment companies, nervously watching their business model waste away like a slowly melting glacier, are deciding they need to get larger and expand globally to compete with deep-pocketed rivals like Netflix—or sell.
PlayStation Vue plans aren’t that much cheaper than traditional cable or satellite, so it’s probably not the best option if you‘re cutting the cord to save money. It does offer a 5-day free trial, so you can test it out (two days shorter than any other streaming service), but make sure to cancel by day five, or you‘ll be charged for the whole month.
RT is one of several international channels to challenge the United States media's global news coverage. In 2010 Walter Isaacson, Chairman of the U.S. Government's Broadcasting Board of Governors (which runs Voice of America, Radio Free Europe and Radio Free Asia), called for more money to invest into the programs because, "We can't allow ourselves to be out-communicated by our enemies," mentioning specifically Russia Today, Iran's Press TV and China's China Central Television (CCTV) in the next sentence. He later explained he actually was referring to "enemies" in Afghanistan, not the nations he mentioned. In 2011, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stated that the United States was "losing the information war" abroad to foreign channels like RT, Al Jazeera and China Central Television and that they are supplanting the Voice of America.
“We cut out cable and tried to replace it with just streaming options, then with those plus PlayStation Vue (because they were the only option for live sports). That was a bust because the internet streaming couldn’t keep up with the speed of most sports, plus the DVR options were abysmal [which made missing live game broadcasts not an option]. So we went back! We are the proud payers of a DIRECTV bill and I’m not even sad about it.” ― Stephanie Bowen Earley
In September 2015, Ofcom found RT in breach of the impartiality rules in its coverage of the events in Ukraine and Syria. It also upheld the complaint by the BBC that allegations made in an episode of The Truthseeker that a BBC Panorama film, Saving Syria's Children, had faked a parts of a report on a chemical weapon attack in Syria were "materially misleading".
In my Google Chromecast Review, I stated Chromecast is the best option for pure cost-cutting. At $35.99 there isn’t much out there that will beat that price point. You will need an existing smartphone, tablet or laptop to use Google Chromecast. Chromecast allows you to stream content from apps on the device to your television. Installation is easy as all you do is plug it into your TV’s HDMI port and set it up on your Wi-Fi network.
In the present times, it’s difficult to find a home without a TV and cable connection. In order to enjoy uninterrupted cable TV services, it is essential to make monthly cable bill payments on time. Some of the leading cable TV companies offering cable connection across the country are Hathway, InCable Digital TV and UCN TV. With the evolution of technology and changing times, most of the cable operators are relying on the online payment modes instead of the traditional billing system. Now, it’s not required either for the subscriber to visit the cable TV centre to pay their bills or for the cable operator to come home & collect the monthly bill. With Paytm’s online bill payment facility, now subscribers can make cable TV bill payment online using our simple-to-use platform.